Thursday, February 23, 2012

TREASURES of the OQUIRRHS GHOST TOWNS by W. DEE HALVERSON


TREASURES OF THE OQUIRRH MOUNTAINS
 GHOST TOWNS OF BINGHAM CANYON
LECTURE #1 AT THE GARDEN PARK VILLAGE CLUBHOUSE FEBRUARY 18, 2012
W. Dee Halverson
 by W. DEE HALVERSON 

Day Break Senior's Great Hall
Victorian manor house in Yorkshire by Sir Edwin Lutyens—high vaulted ceilings with hammer-beam trusses, massive entry-way walnut doors window surrounds, Gobilen tapestry hanging prominently in foyer, I love the glass-bay conservatory w/ fireplace and wood-paneled ceiling, gentlemen’s billiard room, carved wall partitions and bookcases.  We are seated in the Great Hall w/ heavy Victorian draperies, stately chandeliers, high dormer windows and solid wood flooring.

IVY BAKER:  FROM BINGHAM CANYON TO THE WHITE HOUSE
Ivy's parents, Ivy 9, Max 2, Fearnley baby
Ivy Baker moved to Bingham Canyon in 1913 when she was 7 years old.  When her father was injured in a mining accident, her mother, Clara, decided to take in boarders.  Over the years the Baker boardinghouse became well-known for clean beds and good food.  Clara’s attention then turned to making the streets of Bingham safer and cleaner.  She convinced the local physician, Dr. Fred Straup, to run for mayor on the Republican ticket.  She insisted that one of his major platforms was to build boardwalks to keep the pedestrians on Main Street out of the mud.  In a miracle of organization and getting out the vote, Clara got the good doctor elected for three straight terms.  The boardwalks were built.
Ivy also became politically active in the Republican minority of the area. In 1950 she campaigned for election to the U.S. House of Representatives, but lost in a close vote.  Her get-out-the-vote organization was noticed by the Republican National Committee and her name was suggested to President-elect Eisenhower after his election in 1952 to be named Treasurer of the United States.  He agreed and Ivy served in that office for the next eight years.
Of her first White House dinner Ivy later recalled, “The April night seemed to be filled with the magic which spring brings to Washington. A spell seemed to hover over the White House dining room where we were seated.  Just two places from me sat the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower with his wife, Mamie. Also seated around the table were well-known senators, congressmen and ambassadors with their wives.
Ivy with Mr. & Mrs. President Eisenhower  
            “I found myself staring at the place card in front of my plate, which read:
Ivy Baker Priest, Treasurer of the United States.  Suddenly, I was overwhelmed by the wonder of it all.  My thoughts went racing back through the years. . .back to Bingham Canyon, Utah.  Back to days when there was never enough money in our home for food and clothing, or the basic amenities.
“I was seated next to Dr. Norman Vincent Peale when he turned to me and said:  ‘Mrs. Priest, the people I have known in this world who have achieved things have all overcome some great handicap to reach their goal.  I hope you won’t mind my asking what your own handicap was.
Ivy shelling peas in boarding house
“POVERTY,” I replied without hesitation.  Then Dr. Peale replied with a hearty laugh. ‘And now you are in charge of all that money,’”

Ivy never forgot her humble beginnings as a poor copper miner’s daughter from Utah.
BINGHAM CANYON BEGINNINGS, 1847 TO 1869

In 1848 (the year after the Mormon pioneers settled the Salt Lake Valley), Thomas and Sanford Bingham, were sent to the area by Brigham Young, who requested them to take a herd of horses and cattle to graze the high ground around the main canyon.  They built a small cabin on the north side of the creek.  From that time on the new Mormon settlers called the canyon “Bingham” in their honor.  The canyon proved to be an ideal place not only for herding livestock, but also for cutting timber.  At that time the Oquirrh Mountains were heavily forested wilderness with huge stands of Red Pine 3-feet in diameter. The Bingham brothers spent their time herding, sawing logs and prospecting for valuable minerals.
Some ores were discovered, but because of primitive technology and expensive transportation the brothers weren’t able to cash in on their discoveries.  In addition, LDS President Brigham Young—although not opposed to mining in general—feared the negative effects that a gold rush would have on the new local farming communities in the Utah Territory
He advised the brothers against further prospecting and they moved north to settle in Weber County.  The Bingham brothers sold their mining claim for a paltry $50, little did they know it would become world famous and be worth billions.     

THE HALVERSON BOYS FROM RAGTOWN
Grandpa Andrew Halverson  Joe Crump  James & Ray halverson at Rag Town
            Andrew Lars Halverson, my great-grandfather, was born and raised in Denmark.  At the age of 21, he and his entire family listened to the Mormon missionaries and were converted to this new faith.  The Halverson family immigrated to Utah in 1884 where they began farming.  After years of one crop failure after another, Andrew moved his growing family up to Idaho where he had rented a 100-acre sugar beet farm.   His harvest after the first year was a booming success which led him to and his oldest sons, Jim, (my grandfather), Chris, Ray and Harvey to plant even more sugar beets.  The year 1910 was especially harsh for the family.  The spring was very rainy making it hard to seed the beet fields and the early frost froze the ground solid making it impossible to get the beets out of the ground.
James Halverson  Joe Crump  at Rag Town
            In desperation Andrew left his family in Idaho and took a job as an oiler at the Magna Mill for the Utah Copper Company.  When the general strike of 1912 forced 900 copper miners to lose their jobs which paid each man $2 per 10-hour-day (about $65. Somehow Andrew was able to hold onto his job.  As outsiders were being hired to replace the striking workers, Andrew wrote to my grandfather and his brothers and told them to move the family down to Utah immediately.  They all got jobs, but could only find a very small wood-frame shack in Ragtown, Utah for their family of 11.

Suddenly these two photos from our family album made sense to me!
Train on Carr Fork bridge
            For the next five years the Halverson boys prospered.  Jim the oldest married his sweetheart, Mary Vincent and in 1919 moved to Utah County. His younger brother, Harvey Halverson, lived and worked in Bingham Canyon for the next 43 years.  Living in Frog Town, Telegraph and Bingham gave him and his sons a ringside seat on all the events which took place in Bingham Canyon before all of the settlements became ghost towns because of the expansion of the open pit copper mine.

THE COMING OF THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD & BEYOND
           
Steam shovels and steam train
The arrival of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 dramatically changed Bingham Canyon’s fortunes.  It brought town builders.  During the 1870s, the rugged mining camp grew within the confines of the narrow canyon walls.  Miners erected dugouts and wooden shanties in haphazard patterns along the canyon floor.  Boarding houses, general mercantile store, livery stables, a blacksmith shop, as well as a generous number of saloons, were all part of the town’s landscape.  The population soon reached nearly 2,000.
Highland Boy
            The ore could be easily shipped by rail to smelters for refining, and also the invention of dynamite and mechanical drilling made production numbers soar.  From 1880 to 1896 lead and silver mining replaced gold mining.  At that time hardly anyone thought that Bingham Canyon was destined to become famous for its copper.  But Thomas Edison’s inventions and the coming of the Electric Age and the rapidly increased demand for copper wiring all across the country changed that.
            By 1906, Daniel Jackling a young mining engineer, with the financial backing of the Rockefellers of Standard Oil and the Guggenheims, organized the Utah Copper Company and began open cut mining operations.  Jackling’s vision of producing copper from very low-grade ore by processing huge quantities of material proved successful.  From 1906 until his retirement in 1942, UCC would become one of the nation’s foremost copper producers.  Jackling proved the profitability of mining low 2% copper ore with methods that had worldwide significance.
Frog Town with Yampa sSmelter
            In 1914 at the start of World War I in Europe there were more than 10,000 miners in Bingham Canyon.  The price for copper had never been higher, especially after the Allied Forces ordered 25 million artillery shell casings which equaled more than 110 million pounds of copper.
By 1925 there were over 20,000 miners and their families living, working and dying in the dozen towns and settlements up and down the seven-mile long Bingham Canyon.  Each nationality had its own stores, coffeehouses, saloons and pool halls.
With the beginning of World War II in 1939, demand for copper again grew at outstanding rates.  Copper production reached a high point as the Bingham Mine produced about 30% of all the copper used by the Allies to win the war against Germany and Japan.
Copperfield 4th of July  1937
As the copper pit grew deeper in the 1940s and 50s, the expenses of hauling thousands of trainloads of ore up the mine’s terraces became cost prohibitive.  In 1947 the assets of the UCC were acquired by the Kennecott Copper Corporation.  Kennecott embarked upon a period of technological innovation and growth.  It discovered a process to recover other very valuable minerals along with the copper.  By 1963 huge haulage trucks replaced the railroads within the open pit.
Within a very short time by the diligent use of dynamite, gigantic power shovels and thousands of miners the company made an 8,000-foot mountain into the “richest hole in the world” measuring three miles wide and a mile deep.



The Bingham Canyon miners literally came from everywhere in the world!   They came from many sections of Utah and the rest of the United States.  They came from the British Isles. They came from Italy.  They came from what are now the Balkan States.  They came from all the Scandinavian countries.  They came from China and from Japan and from Korea.  They came from Greece. They came from Mexico and from Spain.  There was always such a diversity of languages and cultures up and down the various towns.  More than 30 languages and dialects were spoken by the residents of Bingham Canyon. These groups created distinct communities:  Finns, Swedes and Norwegians came to Carr Fork; Slovaks and Italians to Highland Boy; Greeks, Japanese, British and Scandinavians to Copperfield; Austrians, Welch, Britons, French and Irish to Bingham Town and Lark.

            Due to its steep topography, Bingham Canyon had room for only one main street.  The rough road snaked its way for 7 miles up past Frog Town, Winamuck and the main business district of Bingham Town.  The right fork road led to Carr Fork and Highland Boy, and the left fork road continued up to Copperfield, Terrace Heights and Telegraph, passing trough Dinkeyville, Jap Camp, Little Italy and Greek Camp. 
            Noisy, vibrant and dynamic, Bingham Canyon was a cacophony of sight, sound and activity.  Trains with their whistles echoing throughout the canyon, could be seen plying their 
Main business center Bingham wooden side-walks
way over the mountain slopes.   Spread out from the narrow 20-foot wide main street and perched all they way up the sides of the canyon walls, were the frame houses, shacks, shanties and apartments that housed the town’s citizens.  The limited space left precious little room for yards or playgrounds.

After the famous baseball star Babe Ruth visited the copper mine, baseball games were played wherever there was space.  In Carr Fork this was in the street and when the ball went into the sewer, someone would race ahead to where there was an opening and retrieve it and play would resume.  Baseball was played underneath the “L” Bridge and along the creek in Frogtown.
Halverson house in Telegraph  1936
In the winter, sleigh-riding and skiing were popular.  All the kids needed to do was to step out of their door and they were on a sleigh-riding hill.  The older youths would ride bobsleds all the way from Highland Boy down to the mouth of the canyon.

GENE & LELAND HALVERSON’S COASTING ACCIDENT
            Harvey Halverson contracted “miner’s con” (silicosis of the lungs) while he worked in the underground mine.  As a result, he lost his job (no workman’s comp in those days) and the family was immediately evicted from their home in Telegraph.  They found shelter and food thanks to the kindness of the Greek owners  of the Panos apartments and Apostol’s grocery in Frog Town.
            On New Year’s Day 1936 while sleding down Main Street the Halverson boys, Gene and Leland, were hit by a speeding car.  Gene’s hip bone was shattered and Leland’s front teeth were all knocked out.  Luckily the driver was the son of the chief mining superintendent.  He quickly loaded the injured boys into his car and drove up to Dr. Richard’s hospital.  His father volunteered to pay all the medical expenses and found Father Harvey a good job!  WHAT A LUCKY BREAK!

Bingham Canyon  left fork Copperfield  Right Highland Boy
TAKE A RIDE WITH ME UP BINGHAM CANYON
Recently, I asked my 84-year-old cousin, Gene Halverson, to take me on a virtual drive up the seven-mile road to the top of Bingham Canyon and tell me what it looked like during his heyday.
He started off by explaining that the hillsides along the Bingham Canyon road were filled with unpainted wood-frame houses without yards, rundown and unkempt on the outside, but almost dust-free and immaculately clean on the inside.

Swedes in Carr Fork
LEADMINE:  This was the site of the first copper smelter of 1909.  When the smelter was deemed too small in capacity the area was abandoned.  Then it was settled by Greek and Italian immigrants who were unwelcome at first.

FROG TOWNYampa smelter, the slaughterhouse, Panos Apartments and Chris Apostol’s grocery and meat market.

WINAMUCK:  The Bingham Dairy, Prigmore’s Coal Yard, the #2 Fire Station, and then the big S-Curve in the road.

Gene said that Monday was always wash day all up and down Bingham Canyon.  On that day flying wash flew from every house and in every direction.  It hung on clothes lines running from houses to nearby telephone poles; it ran from upstairs windows up the side of the hill.  It ran from porch to porch.  It went uphill and downhill and the laundry was on exhibit to everyone who came by.  There were no wardrobe secrets in Bingham Canyon. Then there were the Saturday Night baths in the #3 galvanized wash tub that was filled with hot water from the cook stove.  Later some of the teenaged boys especially opted for hiking up to Silver Shield where they could shower in hot water from the mine.  The only problem was that they had to remember to keep their eyes and mouths shut because of the arsenic in the water.

HESTON HEIGHTS:  Bingham Central School, American Legion Post #30, the Community Methodist Church and the small LDS Meetinghouse. Ironically, Bingham Canyon was one of the few places in Utah where the Mormons were definitely in the minority!  In 1900 only 11 LDS families lived in Bingham Canyon.

BINGHAM TOWN:  Four-miles up from the mouth of the canyon consisted of Canyon Social Hall, post office, Bingham Hotel, Utah Copper Hospital, Citizen’s State Bank and the Bingham Press Bulletin newspaper.  J.C. Penny built his Golden Rule Store #3, Princess Theater, Vienna CafĂ©, Bingham Stage Lines, California Hotel and the infamous “sporting houses” at #505 and #520 Main Street.

In back of Bourgard’s butcher shop on Main Street was a huge smokehouse, where hams and bacon were cured.  The vent on top was a favorite fishing hole for the town’s children. “We used to fish through this hole for a stray sausage or two,” remembered Gene.  “I believe the owner used to leave them there on purpose for us to have fun with.”
Taking a right turn at CARR FORK:  The Holy Rosary Catholic Church, The Tram, Gemmell Social Club, Swedish Lutheran Church and Clara Baker’s Boarding house where Ivy Baker grew up.

LDS Church  Heston Heights 
Boarding houses charged the miners $20 per month for board and room which entitled them to all the food they could eat.
Ivy Baker wrote, “When Dad was severely injured in a mining accident, Mother decided to open a small boarding house for single miners in Bingham Canyon.  Her pragmatic, homespun philosophy seemed to work.  And so did her tireless hands.  At a very early age, I had practically a full-time job in our boardinghouse.  At 5 a.m. I would tumble out of bed in my cold room, slip into black long-handled underwear, black bloomers, black stockings and the plain black cotton dress which I always wore to school.
            “There was the breakfast table to set and then there were sandwiches to make for the men’s lunch buckets.  The first boarders would appear for breakfast at 6 and no sooner had they gone clomping off to the mine than another shift would sit down.  The men devoured huge bowls of steaming mush, ham and eggs and polished these off with hot cakes or hot homemade bread spread with Mother’s elderberry jam.
Greek stores with Yampa Smelter
            “Then I’d see that my sleepy-eyed brothers ate their breakfast and afterward shepherd them to school.  When I got home in the afternoon, it would be time to set the table for the first supper shift.  Later came supper for the day workers who were just emerging from the copper mine.  Before going to bed Mother and I would start packing lunch buckets for the men who went to work after midnight on the graveyard shift.  We would make hot coffee and leave it on the stove with doughnuts and cake on the table—then we would both tumble into bed.”

If the boarding house supplied Bingham Canyon with much of its stability, it was the saloon which supplied much of its reputation.  Among the best saloons in the canyon were the Copper King and the California.
Dinkeyville top   Copperfield with US Mine boarding house
Saloons offered carefree miners diversions that no company clubhouse could match.  Companionship, liquor, meals, all varieties of tobacco, and gambling—poker, faro, craps and roulette.  Nearly every saloon maintained an orchestra or a mechanical piano. Some saloon proprietors became promoters of sporting events.  Al Bunker regularly booked 20-round boxing matches into his Copperfield establishment.  Many local boxers including Jack Dempsey were often featured.
Wrestling was also a drawing card in some saloons with Greeks matched against Japanese.  And there were the usual backyard dog and cock fights.  Even during the Prohibition Years of 1920 to 1933 you could always get a stiff drink in Bingham Canyon.  The 36 saloons along Main Street (now soft-drink parlors) continued to quench the thirst of thousands of miners around the clock.
Ada Duhigg Community Center  Methodist Church

Next we come to HIGHLAND BOY:  Settled by Austrians and Slavs. It also contained the smaller camps of Phoenix, Frisco and Boston Con.  The best known building was the Community House run by Ada Duhigg—the Angel of Highland Boy because of her bravery during the devastating fire of 1932.

 Then at last to COPPERFIELD:  with its familiar landmark, the Rex Hotel and the Copperfield Theater and several other businesses, boarding houses and bars. 

Highland Boy     Bingham
In my research I found that a study of the local surnames found in the U.S. Census Records of 1930 told the story:  JUST LISTEN TO THESE NAMES!  Adams, Andreason and Anagnostakis; Badovinatz, Balamis, Borich and Bernado; Carrigan and Compagno;  Depenza and Durnford; Ericksen, Espinosa and Epis; Fernandez, Fassio and Faddis; Golesh, Gerbic and Gavilovich; Halverson, Huebner and Hatfield; Ishimatsu and Ivie; Jiminez, Jacques and Jimas; Kenner and Kliebenstein; Lopez, Lombardi and Larish; MacNeil and Markovitch; Nepolis and Nix;  Ogawa and O’Mally; Pino, Papanikolas and Pagnotta; Rubich, Rubalcava and Rasmussen; Speros, Serassio and Suzuki; Trujillo and Tobiason, Vlasic, Vardakis and Vasquez; Whetzel and Xanthos, Yengich and Zdunich.   A little United Nations

THE END OF THE BINGHAM CANYON COMMUNITIES
            Expansion of its open pit mine was essential and the Kennecott Copper Corporation began buying property around the canyon as it became available for some time prior to 1959.  In the middle of that year a long workers’ strike began against Kennecott and more families left the area. As the year dragged toward a close the handwriting was on the wall.
            On December 9, 1959, nearly all of the property owners in Bingham Canyon met with Kennecott officials to discuss the sale of the towns and surrounding areas.  Gradually the purchase of all parcels of living areas for miners led to the huge expansion of the open copper pit and the swallowing up of the old towns in the canyon.  Highland Boy and Copperfield were dismantled in 1960 and the last buildings in Bingham Town were torn down in 1972.  Lark disappeared from the map by the end of 1980. 
Today more than 150 years since the first mining activity, the town of Copperton remains the sole survivor of the 15 towns and settlements that made Bingham Canyon one of the most culturally diverse and rich areas of Utah.
Copperfield businesses 
PRODUCTION SINCE 1906:  20,000,000 TONS OF COPPER
300,000 tons of copper per year=$3.75 x 2000 x 300,000= $22.5 BILLION
500,000 ounces of gold=$1,725 x 500,000=$1.2 BILLION
4,000,000 ounces of silver=$33 x 4 M=$132 MILLION

I love this little rhyme written by a student at Bingham Canyon Elementary:

There used to be towns here,
With trestles, trains and play;
We climbed up to our homes here
‘Till giants moved it away.

Sunday, February 19, 2012

A COMPANY TOWN in WINTER QUARTERS by EUGENE

Life in a Company Town
Winter Quarters
By Eugene Halverson
Wasatch Store wagon Joe Nielson and kids delivering groceries 
Eugene’s Story, I was born and lived in Telegraph a company town in Bingham Canyon until it died in 1948.  When Winter Quarters died in 1928 our families moved on down to the Company Town of Castle Gate, both were owned by Utah Fuel.  Both were Company Towns and each situated high in the mountains.  But the scenery in which they were set was breath-taking.  Forests of Pine trees, Quaking Aspens, and wild vegetation surrounded both towns.  We had late springs and early fall but the summers were mild, green, and very beautiful.  There were all kinds of flowers, bushes and berries and animals of all kinds to see.  However, the winters were not so pleasant with their deep snows and cold wind, but we still found many things to do even then. 
Ghost Town   Winter Quarters
Winter Quarters History, according to Zehnder’s book on “Coal Camps and ghost Towns” the mine was inspected by the State Mine inspector on 9 March 1900 and had good ventilation and declared safe.  Soon the mine was working night and day producing two thousand tons of coal a day.  Coal dust covered the floors of every tunnel and floating in the air.  There were many warnings and fears of this dust but work went on as usual.  Then on “May Day or Dewey Day” 199 miners of the 367 that entered the mine were killed.  Looking for a scape-goat one of the Parmleys blamed the Finns for causing the explosion.  I often wonder why he could not see disaster just waiting to happen. 
Our family’s came after the explosion but Tom Hall was killed ten years later.  Grandpa James Nielson ended his mining with a serious hand injury. 
Company Guards confiscating illegal turkeys 

I went to the “May Day” on the 2000 Memorial and walked here and there trying to find the houses and buildings that were once there.  I’ll soon be 84 years old and if I am allowed to trespass next summer and hopefully I match my pictures with the remaining cement and rock foundations.  I guess I cannot complain with a stupid sign, in the old days there was a guard house manned with armed guards night and day.  No one went in or out without being checked.  Many went out and kept out, even people whose family owned homes there.  All food and clothing had to be bought at the Company store.  No Exceptions.

Det’s Story  Old Det was drawing Forman’s  wages, living in a good house and happy with the world.  One day Parmley walked up to him after Church, “Det, I really like your new suit where did you buy it?”  I bought it in town and it was cheap and tailored to fit.  Det, tonight I want you to build a fire and invite your neighbors to watch you burn that new suit.  You can buy one just like it tomorrow at the Wasatch Store.
Zehnder said, for many years the buildings stood mute in that mountain valley; windows boarded shut, roof shingles slowly falling away and walls rutting into dust.  No sound of laughter at school.  Eventually the buildings collapsed or were torn down by scavengers.  I was told the company dynamited the beautiful Store, but now I believe that it was scavengers took the store down and hauled the blocks away.  I did take pictures of whatever I could find.  The Company sawed my mother-in-law’s house and many homes in half and took them down to Castle Gate.  I could still see these marks showing where they were cut and reassembled in the 1950’s.   This same house forty or so years later was moved again to a subdivision in Helper and is there today. 
Del Haymond, Joe Nielson, Joe Parmley, Mary Ann Parmley,
Bill Kreig,  Ders Parmley,  Dek Daegon, unknown-1916
Zehnder said, for many years the buildings stood mute in that mountain valley; windows boarded shut, roof shingles slowly falling away and walls rutting into dust.  No sound of laughter at school.  Eventually the buildings collapsed or were torn down by scavengers.  I was told the company dynamited the beautiful Store built by Italian Masons.  I was also told that scavengers took the store down and hauled the blocks away.  I did take pictures of whatever I could find.  The Company sawed many homes in half and took them down to Castle Gate.  I could still see these marks showing where they were cut and reassembled in the 1950’s.   This same house forty or so years later was moved again to a subdivision in Helper and is there today.
Well there is always next year I hope.  I could see why it was called Pleasant Valley, the town was now a valley of green grass broken up with the old store and foundations of buildings.  Zehnder also said the poor quality of coal caused the mine to shut-down, maybe so or maybe no, I do know there was a fire in there and the mine had to sealed to smother the inferno burning within it. 
sisters,  Veda  &  Helen Nielson
I remember travelling the old dirt from Scofield to Tucker.  I had no idea I was travelling the “Calico Road”, the first railroad (a narrow-gage railroad)  to Winter Quarters from Springville.  One day some Chinese in a labor dispute were forced into a box-car, the door was locked and sent to the valley on a steep wild speedy scary ride down the mountain.  The box- car did make it to Tucker in Spanish Fork Canyon before it left the tracks and rolled over. 
I believe all my wife’s relatives lived just below the Wasatch Store and above the school.  I used to think we were all living in company houses with water, but they got their drinking water from a spring near the Store. Later on a water pipe with faucets here and there ran the length of the town.  Wash water was carried from the creek.  And every house had an outdoor toilet.   It seems like we were related to everyone even the Parmleys.  As you read the children’s stories you will find that Winter Quarters was a treasure and it was alive with joy and laughter.  They never thought of it a place of death. 


Kathy Hamaker said  My mother, Fern Hreinson  was in Winter Quarters in October of 1922.  She turned 8 years old in October and in November she was walking down the street and the ward had backed up the river to make a pond.  They were baptizing  outside.  When she walked past they had her come over and they baptized her.  Then she went home to tell her mother that she had just got baptized.  I just can’t even imagine how cold it would have been or what kind of reaction she would have received from her mother. 

Winter Quarters School Playgrounds
Keri Karpowitz said, Winter Quarters became one of the most impressive cities in the state.  Houses dotted the valleys and canyons. The business district grew to be more than a mile long. The residents built many fine stone buildings which were just as impressive as some of those in Salt Lake City.  The company built Amusement Halls for dancing, show houses, schools with play-grounds, and sponsored many all-day celebrations with food, song, dance and even ball games. 
Company Laws, Winter Quarters had a jail, guards, a Judge and a set of Company rules or laws all paid for by the company.  You could be jailed for 45 days on any charge without any complaints from the state or county.  The US Constitution meant nothing in those days.  One day a prominent Italian was arrested and jailed.  Friends sent for a lawyer to defend him.  Well the lawyer  was arrested for trespassing and jailed.  Lawyers were never allowed in Company Trials.
All food and clothing must be bought from the Wasatch Store or the guards would confiscate it as you entered the only road into town.  The husband could be fired and the family removed for bringing illegal items.  I have a picture of three armed-guards who intercepted a bunch of turkeys brought in from Utah County.  Today there is a “NO TRESPASSING” sign, in the old days armed guards watched who came and left.   
Picks, shovels, blasting powder were all bought and paid for by the miner.  The company did have blacksmiths to resharpen and repair their tools for a price.  There were no wages paid for mining coal, they were paid by the ton (cars they filled) and cheating by the tipple people was a common complaint.


Walt said his dad went to work when he was 13 years old, he was very small and he had a hard time keeping his lunch bucket out of the snow.  When he began to cry because of some small injury his father sent him home and send one of your sisters back. 
family of Finns killed in explosion 
Strikes were common and guards were always threatening someone.  The company brought in out of state gun-men and called them deputies and they were looking for trouble.  The town was full of State Militia troopers sent by our Governor to save the mine they brought in machine-guns and rifles.  In the 1903 strike Fred Jarvi was shot in the back near his spine, the doctors were unable to remove the bullet.  They expected him to die anyway.   Years later his brother cut it out.  There are no records of  how many others were wounded or killed.  In January 1904 Company guards force ably removed Wayne Jarvi’s grandfather along with some other Finns.  Company guards walked into both private or company homes and evicted the family.  Everything including women and children and possessions loaded on trucks and taken to the town borders or to Scofield and dumped.  One afternoon the Finns allowed the soldiers into their Finn Hall and  entertained them with food, drink and music.


Wasatch Store              school             Church
  A day or two later these so-called-friends were pointing their rifles at them and removing them from town.  This made the Finns angry enough  to charge the armed militia and  injure several of the soldiers.  Another day six big Austrian women met old Parmley walking toward them, they caught him and took him down and peed on him.  So life was not always happy and rosy for no one. 

Rag Town, In the early days the carpenters and masons lived in tents just below town in a place called Rag Town.  The Italians were credited with the beautiful stone work on the Wasatch Store but Walt Donaldson’s grandfather and others worked on it and many other stone buildings. Rag Town disappeared when houses became available.      


Winter Quarter School
Greek Town had many houses beer-joints and smoke-houses.  The Company  after the strike they were “Black Balled” and the activists removed.  They lost their homes to the Company when they were evicted.  They probably suffered more than the other immigrants.   Greek Camp was above the Store just below the Finns.   
The Austrians or Yugoslavs was another group that was last to be given work and the first to be laid off.  Their camp was either above or below Greek Camp.  . 
Craig Fuller, UHS said Finn Town or upper town lived in a segregated part of town about “a half mile away from the first houses of “white men” or non- American).  White men are always the Mormon.  The largest building was the Finn Hall and their houses were built with sawn-lumber like the rest but some had log homes and sheds with inner-locking logs built as they did in the old country.  A most important “Sauna” was built on the first floor of the Koski’s and Johnson’s home.  After the loss of sixty six fathers and sons the Company fired the remaining survivors and removed them from town.  Then some of these Private houses were confiscated and became Company houses.  Those actively involved in the 1903 strike were “Black Balled” and removed and were never hired again.  Some Finns did come back, somehow and live.  The widowed, Mary Karpi continued to run the boarding house.   
Winter Quarters
March 1907 more strikes and Martial Law.
Lena Thorpe tells about Militia putting the town under Martial Law for months at a time in 1922. 
I have found that in Winter Quarters there were about 250 private homes and I have no idea how many company houses, beer-joints and houses of prostitution.   The Company built many houses and buildings and possessed any house the owner failed sale before he was evicted.
This amusement hall was also the local lodge of the International Order of Odd Fellows.  They used the hall for balls and community dancesMarch 1907 more strikes and Martial Law.

Lena Thorpe tells about Militia putting the town under Martial Law for months at a time in 1922. 
It wasn’t until 1930 until the company thievery ended.  President Roosevelt gave us the right to join a union.

I have found that in Winter Quarters there were about 250 private homes and I have no idea how many company houses, beer-joints and houses of prostitution.   The Company built many houses and buildings and possess any house the owner could not sale as he was evicted.

Cousins Ella N.  and Helen Nielson 
There was an amusement hall in town and it was also the local lodge of the International Order of Odd Fellows.  They used the hall for balls and community dances


Family StoriesElla Nielson Story, I was born December 20, 1904 in Winter Quarters, Utah to James and Christine Smith Nielson.  My brothers and sisters were:  Ida Marie Nielson, Niels Nielson, May Nielson, James Nielson, Christian Nielson, Joseph Nielson, Jennie Nielson, Caroline Nielson, James Nielson, Ethel Nielson, Martha Nielson, Decinious Nielson, Manila Nielson, and Minnie Nielson.  I was blessed and baptized in Winter Quarters and attended school in Scofield, Utah.  I was the 15th child of the family.  My mother died with the 16th child, and I was 18 months old at the time.  I was raised by my father and my sisters helped. When I was a little girl, my father would put me in a sleigh and put a harness on the dog and I would ride all over town.  In the summer he got a little red wagon for me and we went all over.  There was a beautiful picture of me with light hair when I was young and I looked like Jalynn.  When I was little, I had mumps, measles, and diphtheria.  They always had a sign on the house, when anyone in the house had the measles.  When I was young, we had dances in a big amusement hall.  They had dances but the boys wouldn't dance.  We had to dance with girls all the time.  They had shows on Charley Chaplin, the silent movies.  We would go there once a week and have to pay for it.  When I was young, I played basketball and you should have seen my bloomers.  They were black with elastic on the middle and elastic on the legs.  We would go up where there were cattle and get mushrooms.  My brother fished and gave us some.  I went horse-back riding up the hill with Winifred on Joe's horse.  Oh, it was so much fun.  My father went with us on picnics.  He watched me skate.  He would say, “Ella quit letting those girls fall on top of you."  Our outdoor toilet had a catalogue in it.  We had dreams every time we went to the toilet probably about some of the things you couldn't get at the store.  On the 24th of July we went up a big hill to Lee Marsden's.  They had a bunch of lambs.  The men built a great big platform and put brush on every side of it and they would give popcorn, ice cream and hamburgers free anytime we wanted.  The Bishop was sponsoring it and he was the head of the mines.  The Bishop's son married Lavern Parmley of Salt Lake.  We had the best time.  We ran races and made a lot of money.  They played ball, and I like to play ball then.  We had fun.  When we got hungry again, we went back and had all the food we could eat.  I would love to play horseshoes.  My brother, Niels said to me one day, “Ella you take off those overalls or I'll be mad at you and give you a licking". 
Wasatch Store
At Christmas time when I was 12 years old, it was snowing like the dickens in Winter Quarters, Utah.  Tomorrow was Christmas and I wanted my Christmas tree.  My dad had been to busy to get one.  I put on my rubber boots, coat, and hat.  I went down the hills, over the road, over the railroad tracks and walked in the water.  I went way high in the hills.  When I found my Christmas tree, I took my ax and cut it down.  I let it roll down the hill.  When I got to the water, I pulled it across the water, across the railroad track across the road and up the hill I went.   I made popcorn, colored it pink and put cranberries around it.  We put a bundle of tinsel on the tree.  Its not like Darlene's.  She has the most beautiful tinsel I have ever seen.  On the tree, my father put handles all over the tree to put candles in.  The candles were red, white, blue, green and orange.  That tree was so pretty.  He lit the candles and that tree was so gorgeous, much prettier than the trees are today.  Lights all over the tree were blazing, blazing, blazing.  They were so pretty.  My father was so pleased with what I had done.  I had made chains of different colors.  I made little lanterns and put them all over the tree.  I showed Marcie and Gayla how to make them.  Underneath the tree were beautiful packages from my brothers.  My father sent to Sears for a big bucket of caramels.  On top of the bucket was a lid so we could use it.  He sent for all kinds of candy:  peanut-brittle, orange sticks and old fashioned chocolates.  My, how we loved that candy.  The next morning it was Christmas and I opened my packages.  I got so many beautiful packages from my sisters and brothers.  I loved my brothers, Ed and Joe  (Nielson)so much better than the others.  I was 15 when I started to date.  My dad was a good sheepherder cook. 
Baptism in creek--Quilter photo--Harry Hall's family??
I went to the eighth grade and at the end of the eighth grade I graduated.  They gave me something real nice for graduation because I was the head of the class and got all A's.  I was valedictorian of the eighth grade.  I sang at my graduation but I don't remember what it was I sang.  I went to Scofield to school and I walked on the railroad and thought that was really fun.  It was about a mile and we went past the hospital.  I guess I'll have to tell you about the hospital.  It was real tall and had a lot of patients in there and it divided Winter Quarters from Scofield. 
We laughed all over and had so much fun in the winter.  My brother, Joe(Nielson) would take a sleigh to deliver groceries and I would sit on the running board of his sleigh.  He had boys deliver for him and would stop at the store after and give them a big box of candy and me some also.  We had a butcher shop run by Joe the Greek.  If I wanted anything, he would give it to me for nothing.  One day I took my friends up there and he gave us wieners and all kinds of lunch meat that we wanted.  He also gave us tripe and I just loved it.  You should try it sometime.  Oh, he was a good old Greek.  One day I went to a Greek wedding way up high above where the mines were and it took about three hours for them to get married and boy it almost makes you sick.  They just yim, yum, yum all the time.  Finally they took us off to eat and they had all kinds of  food you could think of.  Now, these Greeks were good eaters and they had so much food there that we ate and were filled to the top.  It was fun and I sort of liked the darn old Greeks in Winter Quarters.   
Boarding House for single men
But Jim Nielson said; For some reason Dad (Joe Nielson) hated the Greeks.  He would go from one saloon to another looking for one to fight with.  One time this rather large Greek waited until Dad had to many drinks and beat him up.  The Nielsen’s would get together for a family Sunday dinner about once a month.  These were the families were families of ED Nielson, James Nielson and Joe Nielson, it would be at a different house each time and the occasion would always end up with a fight.  It ended up with the kids crying and the wives angry.  It was a mess with all the broken dishes and furniture.  You could always find Joe even in a group picture.  He had these big cauliflower (fighters ears) ears.

Ed Nielson Story, When Dad was fifteen the family moved to Winter Quarters, Utah.  It was here that Dad started his life long career as a coal miner.  Also it was where he met and married Sarah Evelyn Gibson on July 30, 1907.  It was here in Winter Quarters that eight children were born to them:  Marie, Leo, Rena, Edna, Evelyn, Georgia, Erma and Ted.

James Nielson and son Ed Nielson
Dad and his brother Joe often participated on Rescue teams to save miners trapped in earth cave-ins or mine explosions.  He always got great pleasure from helping others and was always sad when the rescue came too late to save lives.  Upon returning from a rescue operation in another town or city, he brought each of his children a small gift.  His family was very special to him.
In the spring of 1927 the family moved from the mountains of Winter Quarters because the mine had to be sealed off to smother the inferno burning within it.  The family moved to Castle Gate, Utah.  While living here two more sons were born, Glen on November 27, 1927 And Vern Dee on November 4 1930. 

Grandma Christena Smith Nielson and Grandpa James Nielson Story, Sometime in 1898 the family in search of a more stable income and better conditions moved from Richfield, Utah to Spring Glen, Utah.  James's brother, Christian Nelson owned farm here in Spring Glen and needed someone to take care of it.  Christian was the “Railmaster” of the D&RG Railroad.  He helped them settle and helped James get employment.  We believe James did buy a farm here.  The family was quite large.  There were ten children, the parents and Stena's aging mother, Christina.   These were hard years the time when four of their children would die,  Deceneous who was born in Richfield 7 June, 1898 died in Spring Glenn 15 February, 1899,   Manilla Viola was born in Spring Glenn, 10 February, 1899and died soon after.  Another child, Minnie was born in Richfield 10 January, 1901 and died at birth.
Florence Hall Nielson  Joe's wife
Ed said, “After the death of a favored child (Ethel in March, 1901), his father (James Nielson) began drinking and gambling.  James owned a good share of land in Richfield and much of Spring Glen.  He lost most of his belongings to gambling, leaving the family near poverty." 
"One evening after the sun had gone down in Winter Quarters, Stena and a neighbor stopped to rest while walking.  As they sat on the rail road tracks overlooking the town, Stena pointed her finger at the saloons below and said "That's the reason we are always poor." 
Poverty caused by James' gambling forced the family to move back to Richfield.   In the next two or three years the Nielson's would move back again to Winter Quarters, their last and permanent home.  This is where Ella was born 20 December, 1904.  The move from the farm to the mining camps caused many problems, drinking and gambling was never a problem in Richfield but it was in Winter Quarters. Stena didn’t like to raise her children in a mining camp.  Some of her children began to drift away from the Church.
Hard times also came when James was injured in the mine.  His hand was crushed but nothing has been written about it.  He was given some work outside the mine.  Town Marshall was one these jobs.  A few years later Stena (his wife) , only 43 years old would die in Winter Quarters on 18 July, 1906.  Some say she died of pneumonia.  Ella said she died giving birth to her 16 child.  She was taken to Richfield and buried near her four children and mother in the Richfield Cemetery.  Her name on the stone is listed as Christena Marie.   James was left with baby, Ella and three small boys to raise. 

James Nielson family
Ella Gilbert Nielson Story,  So, in later years when my father joined the Church, it was through Uncle Andrew that my father came to Winter Quarters as did many other converts who joined the Church.  It was there my sister met her husband, my brother met his wife and I met Niels Nielson.  His father's family lived there.  The altitude was nine thousand, nine hundred feet above sea level and in our time the Doctor said I would have to leave the high altitude for my heart.  We had five children born in Winter Quarters, Utah and six born in Ceader View, Utah.  I married Niels in 1903.  We loved each other very much.  In 18 July, 1905 Julia was born.  We named her after my Mother--her name was Julia Ann Thompson.  People were always telling me, when I was a child, about my mother whom they loved so much.  Julia, my daughter, was like her for everyone loved her.  And our next child was James Clifford.  He was a very fair complected and such a sweet contented baby.  He died when he was ten months old, lacking seven days.  The next baby was a baby girl and we named her Elva Christina.  She was born 9 January, 1910.  She had a dark complexion like Julia.  She like James didn't stay with us very long.  She died 28 May, 1910.  We had five children born in Winter Quarters, Utah and six born in Ceader View, Utah.  In the next few years, Niels left the farm in the winter months to work in the coal mines.  He would along bring horses from Winter Quarters and Price to winter on his farm.  When Niels came riding into town with about forty horses the people cheered, it meant spring was here, horses to ride.  The company only kept a few horses to plow the road for the horse sled to deliver groceries.
Ed Nielson's girls
Ena Gudmundson Carrick,  I was about 20 years old and then I went back to Schofield, Utah and worked again in a boarding house.  It was at this time I met Jack Carrick, the man I was to marry.  He had decided he was going to marry me before he had even met me.  My sister Becky was working at Winter Quarters and had showed my picture to Jack and he told her he was going to marry me.  It was just after I met him that we started to go together and about six months later we got married.  We were married at Winter Quarters, Utah by Bishop Thomas J. Parmley (Jack’s sister’s husband).  He also blessed all of our children except Hannah.  At this time Jack was working in the mine and making $1.75 for a ten-hour day.  We rented a place for about six months after we were married and paid $5.00 a month rent.
Then one of the miners, who had a nice home, he stole some explosives and was fired from the mine.  He was pressed to sell the house where he lived which I had wanted to buy, so I went to a boarder of one of my sisters who was also a good friend and asked to borrow money to buy the house.  They wanted $130.00 for the house and he let me have the money and after two months we were able to pay him back what we had borrowed and the house was ours.  The ground was not ours, however, as it was owned by the mining company.  This house was a three room home, with enough lumber to build another room.  It was in this home that my children Isabell, Little Johnny and Helen were born.  When Helen was two years old the mining company wanted the ground back so they gave us enough lumber to build on more of their ground.  We had enough lumber to build a 4 room house with a pantry.  Little Johnny was born in the second home, he died when he was four months old.
Lena Thorpe
In the year 1900, there was a terrible explosion at the mine in Winter Quarters.  There were 200 men killed in this explosion.  At this time Jack was working night shift at the mine and the explosion occurred at 10 o’clock in the morning, which was fortunate for us.  Other families had both fathers and sons killed in this explosion.  Some of the boys were as young as 15 years of age.


LENA THORPE & Hall Story, When we came from England we went to a mining town called Winter Quarters in Carbon County.  Mining was all my dad knew.  He quit school when he was 12 years old and worked in the mine with his dad.  My dad was bald-headed on the top of his head.  When we were kids, we asked him how come he was bald-headed. The only answer we got was that he pushed the loaded coal cars with his head.
Winter Quarters was located 1 1/4 miles up the canyon from Scofield.  The altitude was very high.  The houses were on one side of the canyon.  On one hill, there were sage brush and sarvis berries.  They were good to eat.  The other side was pine trees, aspen trees, timber, lilies and forget-me-nots that grew wild.  There was the hillside, houses, road, railroad tracks and the creek.  It was cool in the summer and cold in the winter.  We got the first snowfall in October.  You never saw the top of the fences until spring.  We had dirt roads and no snowplows to clear the snow off.  The train would have a plow on the front of the engine to clean the tracks.  I have watched two trains together to clean the tracks off.  The snow was so high.
Helen, Veda, Sunny, Jack, Jim, Grandma Hall
We had no electricity in the houses.  We used kerosene lamps.  We had one in each room.  When I was about 9 years old, they put electricity in the homes.  My grandmother wouldn't let them put the wires above the ceiling out of sight.  She was afraid they would set the house on fire.
My grandparents and most of the family joined the L.D.S. Church in England.  My mother was 15 years old when she was baptized.  The missionaries converted them.  My mother said she did the laundry for the missionaries every week.  My grandparents had the missionaries for a lot of meals.  My grandfather and one son came to America first.  They worked in the mine and saved their money for a year, and then Grandma and the rest of the family came to America.  We came a year later.  I loved to go to my grandparent’s home.  Grandma always had something for us.  I was the first grandchild.   She always gave me a handkerchief on my birthday.
My grandpa worked in the fan house that pumped the air in to the mine.  It made a lot of noise.  It made him quite deaf.  Grandpa died after my mother's sister, Florence May Hall Nielson died.  She had 6 children, one a baby six months old.  Grandma took the baby (Jim) and raised him until he was 7 years old.  It was hard for her because her health wasn't very good. 
Ella Nielson  Les Boothe
I remember the first year I went to school.  My teacher was Miss Walton.  I liked her very much.  I used to try and walk like her and wear my coat like she did.  When I was in the second grade, I forgot to put my dress on.  When I took my coat off, there I was in my slip.  The teacher wouldn't let me go home and get my dress.  After that I always looked myself over to see if I was dressed.  My mother had 5 babies in 6 years, so we had to do some things for ourselves.
Another time I put my tongue on a frosted wagon wheel.  When I tried to get it off, the skin came off, too.  For a while I had a sore tongue.  And another time I put my foot between the spokes of a wagon wheel.  The man came back and started to go.  I did some fast moving to get out of there.  I was always doing some dumb thing.
It was in the first grade, my Uncle Tom used to come to our house on Saturday nights, after we had our baths in front of the kitchen stove in a round washtub.  When we had gone to bed, he would come in and get us up.  He always had something for us, either an ice cream cone or fruit, a banana, orange or an apple. We thought that was great.  A little while after that, he was killed in the mine.
My grandparents lived next door to the schoolhouse.  I would go over there and see them during recess.  They had a fence around their yard.  One day I went to see her and the gate was locked.  I didn't know it.  I was running.  I pushed on the gate.  It bounced back and hit me on the nose and made it bleed.  My grandma came out and took care of it.  I always made sure the gate wasn't locked after that.
Another time, I knew she had some apples.  I wanted one.  I didn't like to ask for one, so I started to sing, made up the words as I went along.  As I sang "Apples, Apples, I sure would like an apple,” she heard me.  She said, "Do you want an apple?"  I said, "Yes."  She gave me one, then she asked, "Why didn't you ask for one?"
Nielson girls
Another time, I was taking care of the baby, Tom.  I put him in the buggy and took him to our next door neighbor's house so I could play on the lawn.  We didn't have any lawn around our house.  They had a picket fence around their place.  I parked the buggy on the outside of the fence, then jumped the fence to play on the lawn.  The baby started to cry.  I started over the fence.  My slip got caught on a picket.  While I was twisting and turning and pulling to get loose, I tipped the buggy over.  The baby fell out and it made his nose bleed.  Then mama came and picked up the baby and got me off the fence.  My slip had a big hole in it.  I was sent to bed without my supper.  She gave me something to eat later.
I used to stand on a stool and wash the dishes.  We didn't have a sink, so we washed the dishes on the kitchen table.  On a Saturday, I thought I would never get through washing dishes.  She did a lot of baking on Saturday.
We always had a baby to take care of.  We would just get one to walk when another would come along.   Mama was a very good seamstress.  She made all of our clothes.  She would sew all summer so we would have clothes for school.  We never had a lot of money, but there was plenty of love in our home. 
I was baptized when I was 8 years old in the creek.  The boys had made a swimming pool in the creek.  That's the only place we had for baptisms.  After I was baptized, I had a terrible headache.  When I was confirmed, my headache was gone. 
Lucille Rawlins     Norma Jones
When my brother was 8 years old, he got the flu.  That was in 1918.  He died.  Nobody would come to your house if someone had the flu.  There was one friend that came and helped to dress him.  My dad took the body to Scofield.  The rest of us stayed home.  We were all so uptight and scared.



I graduated from the eighth grade while in Sunnyside. We lived in Sunnyside for about 9 years.  Then my dad was transferred back to Winter Quarters to be the Mine Superintendent. One morning we walked to school, it was 38 degrees below zero.  We had frost on our eyelashes, also on our clothes.  When we got there, they didn't have any classes.  They couldn't get the building warm enough.  So we hugged the radiators to try and get warm before starting for home.  We always walked down the railroad tracks to school and home on the road.  They always had so much snow and no plows.  The roads were snow packed.  They used sleighs pulled by horses in the winter. So if a sleigh came along, we would hitch a ride home.  If there was no room in the sleigh, we would stand on the runners.  It was fun.  The only plows up there were to keep the tracks clean.  I have seen the snow so deep, it would take 2 trains together to clear the tracks off; when it was so cold, the coal cars would freeze to the tracks.  One time it took 5 trains together to get them loose and up to the mine.
Darlene, Ella N. Boothe, Less Boothe
Melba
 While we were in Winter Quarters the mine went on strike.  There was no union at that time. Some of the men got mean, especially the ringleaders.  They would try and stop the train by getting on the water tank and shooting at the engineers.  It got so bad they called the National Guard from Provo to come in.  We were under martial law for months.  Everybody had to be off the streets by 10 p.m.  Maxine Dougherty and I chummed around together.  We got acquainted with a couple of fellows from the National Guard.  Somebody told my dad about Maxine and me.  He hit the ceiling.  His eyes were as red as fire, he was so mad.

Florence May Hall Story she was born in Higham (near Barnsley) Yorkshire, England.  She came to Winter Quarters when she was only 14 years old.  James, her brother had brought the family over as he earned the passage money for them to come.  He came in 1904 and the rest in 1906 and 1908.
Winter Quarters was where Joseph Henry Nielson and Florence met and later married, on 18 October, 1911.  They rented a house 


Laura N. Holm--- James Holm
here in Winter Quarters where six children were born to them; Veda May, born 1 June, 1912, Ellen Vernetta, 25 June, 1913, Joseph Henry, 4 October, 1916, Ethel, 15 June, 1920, Jack, 5 July, 1921 and John James, 5 July, 1924.  She died of uremic poisoning shortly after giving birth to this last child, on the 20 July 1924.  She was only 18 years old when she married and 31 when she died.  The children were to small to remember her.  Friends and relatives are our only source of information.  They all called her "Florie" and everyone loved and respected her.  Harry, her brother used to tell us things about her; how sweet and beautiful she was and how loving and kind she was.  Norma Jones Carter said,  "She was such a sweet person, everyone just loved her.  After her death, Jim was taken to his 


Grandmother, Mary Ellen Pearson Hall who also lived in Winter Quarters.  These must have been very trying times for the family because it was only six months later that Grandfather, John Hall died, 23 November 1924, 63 years old.  Jim lived with Grandma Hall until she began having health problems.  She had suffered from rumitoid arthritis and now from what they called dropsy.  This was near the time she would leave Winter Quarters to go to Castle Gate 


Hall 's  Eve, Mary Ellen, May, James, Tom, James, Harry
to live near or with her daughter, Eva.  Jim was about six years old when his father, Joe came to take him home.  He had grown to love his Grandma very much Hall familyand wasn't about to leave her.  Joe picked up his clothes in one arm and Jim in the other and went out the door, Jim went kicking and screaming to his new home.   





Comments by Eugene Halverson
Doctor Paul Richards,  Doctors were the first brominate person in town to believe immigrants were human-beings, that they had feelings and suffered like other people.  In Bingham a doctor was about the only person who stood up to the company.  Doctor Paul Richards said his hospital was full of miners needlessly sick or injured in the mine.  He showed the company how a little water on the drills and floor and better roof support would save them money and it did.  After saving my leg and my father’s life my mother named my brother, Paul after him.  He loved Bingham and a grateful town loved him.
A Price City Doctor,  One day the militia and company guards began removing a family when he was about to deliver a baby he took a shotgun and threatened to kill any man coming to the porch.  Union leaders like John L. Lewis, Vito Bonacci and the Doctors was the best thing that ever happened in Carbon County.   
John Creedon, a  Bingham writer and reporter said,   The year 1912 came and with it tragedy to Bingham.  It was the year of the Big Strike.  I don’t remember the issues at stake or the winner of this strike, if there was any winner.  There seems to be a difference of opinion of the outcome from some of the old timers I have consulted.

Levi Jones died so family is removed- house is boarded up
It brought to Bingham an element that left a blight on the community for years to come Strike breakers or “scabs” were brought in to work the jobs, the men had left and the gunmen were there to protect them.  The hate and resentment shown these unwelcome visitors impressed me as young as I was, and to this day I loathe such persons.  Bingham was occupied by 400 unruly company gunmen and the State Militia the only good they did was shoot each other.
Lena Thorpe said,  the National Guard came from Provo.  We were under martial law for months.  Everybody had to be off the streets by 10 p.m. Maxine Dougherty and I chummed around together.  We got acquainted with a couple of fellows from the National Guard.  Somebody told my dad about Maxine and me.  He hit the ceiling.  His eyes were as red as fire, he was so mad.  I didn't know what the trouble was until I asked Mama.  She said someone told Dad something about us.  He was so mad he wouldn't sleep in the same bed as Mama.  He slept on the couch; that went on for a whole week.


I have written about the Parmleys, Nielsons, Halls and Thorpe’s and we were all related.  I believe they were wonderful, caring, religious people who did what they did too survive.  I often wonder if it was pressure from the D&RG for more money or if their temper got the best of them.  
My grandmother always said there are, “US and THEMS” and you remember it.

I am part Finish and have felt discrimination because I came from the mining town of Bingham.  The Mormons must have thought us as something the cat drug in.  My son was sent home if he came to play with other Mormon kids.  My Mexican friends who moved to the valley had many more problems than I ever did.  Winter Quarters the only “white men” in town were Mormons.  I had never thought us “blond, blue-eyed Finns” as the dark people.


Rag Town/Tent Town in Winter Quarters
We were poor but didn’t know it but learned to live with twenty or more different nationalities.  I still probably have more Mexican friends than Mormon friends.  The adults fought tooth and toe-nail for survival but us kids cared less what color their skins were, only if they were fun. I was shocked when we left the mountains to the valley how unwelcome we were.  If your skin was dark the show-houses, dance halls, swimming pools everything were closed to us. I truly miss my home in Bingham.  We were one of the first families to be removed and for the next several years as I went to work some building or part of the mountain was missing.  Now the whole town is completely buried.  Can it be a “Ghost town” when the only thing that is left is a memory?  It’s enough to make you cry.  My wife Joyce Houghton cries as we pass the Ghost Town of Castle Gate but a least you can see it.